The first scientific excavations in Ancon cemetery were done between the years 1874 and 1875, by Wilheim Reiss and Alphons Stubel. By that time the cemetery was in the middle of its destruction process thanks to the construction of the Lima- Huacho railway.
They dug in different places outside and inside of the "necropolis". It is not known how many burials were dug in total. The results of their researches were published in three volumes (das Totenfeld Von Ancón, 1880 – 87). These have detailed descriptions and color illustrations of the cultural material recovered. However, the authors didn’t care much about the archaeological associations, the chronology of the burials and from the site in general.
In 1876, Charles Wiener visited Ancon and opened different burials, but he didn’t publish the results. The recovered specimens went to be part of the materials of the Mussée Ethnographique from Paris.
In 1884, Knut Hjalmar Stolpe exhumed some of the necropolis’ burials. His collections are found in the State Ethnologic Museum from Estocolmo and his camp notes have disappeared.
Between 1891 and 1892 George Amos Dorsey dug 127 tombs in the necropolis thanks to the Chicago Columbine World Exposition. This material helped him on his Phd thesis published in 1894 called "An archaeological study based on a personal exploration of over one hundred graves at the necropolis of Ancón, Perú". His camp notes also got lost.
In 1904 the German Max Uhle dug in the hills zones a shell midden constituted by huge accumulations of food wastes from a marine origin. Uhle proposed that the shells middens were a testimony of the presence of an earlier period before the ancestral Peruvian civilization. He called it "primitive fishermen". In the other hand, William D. Strong analyzed the ceramics from the contexts with the help of the unpublished camp notes from Uhle. He made a chronological order which confirms Uhle’s data.
In 1941, Gordón R. Willey and M. Newman, archaeologists from Columbia University, dug in the Colinas zone. The results were published in 1954 where Willey elaborates a first chronological order from the ceramics belonging to the Early Ancon Period.
By the ends of 1945, big campaigns of "archaeological rescue" were started. This was motivated by the modern settlements constructions in the north part of the "necropolis". Julio C.Tello dug an area of 200 meters long per 200 meters wide. In the Miramar area he found 1570 burials with 14055 objects in total. Until now, there is only one provisional report about the excavations made in the northeast sector of the "Necropolis". There were found around 100 burials.
In 1946, as part of this program, Julio C. Tello dug 264 burials from a cemetery from the Early Horizon in the superior part of the road from Playa Hermosa. It belongs to Colinas zone. Rebeca Carrión Cachot continued with the description of these burials. She directed the field works after Tello’s death and published a small catalogue about these studies. It was presented in an exposition about Ancon that was celebrated in San Marcos University in 1951.
In 1950, a second excavation campaign was organized in the Miramar area, under the direction of the Inspector of Archaeological Monuments. In the period between August 1950 and October 1953 were dug 875 burials containing a total of 11090 objects. A part of the results of this campaign were published by Rogger Ravines (1979 to 1983).
Between July and September from 1955 and September-October 1968, the Investigations Section and Conservation of Archaeological Ruins and Monuments of History and Archeology organized the last companies in Miramar. In 1959 he found 68 burials containing 391 objects and in 1965 21 burials were found with 171 objects in total.
Also during 1957 and 1958, Ernesto and Eduardo Tabio Lanning made some trenches in the area of the hills, where they found some fragments from the pottery style Paracas Cavernas.
In 1959 he worked in the nursery area (Colinas) the staff from National Museum of Anthropology and Archeology and found some burials from the Early Horizon period. This work continued in 1960 and 1962. Jorge C. Muelle and Ravines Rogger presented a publication titled "The preceramic strata from Ancon” (1973), where they write about their findings and results.
In 1960 and 1961 Ramiro Matos dug in the hills area a place called El Tanque and then, based on the results of his excavations he wrote his doctoral thesis entitled "The Early Ceramics of Ancon and its problems" (1962). It is unpublished. (100_2634. jpg)
From 1961 to 1963 and during 1967, Rosas Hermilio dug in Las Colinas. The cultural material recovered was the base for his bachelor' thesis in 1970 called "The Cultural Sequence of the Formative Period from Ancon”. This publication has been edited in 2007. (shrine, temple 4)
In August 1966, Hilda Vidal and Carlos Guzman Ladron de Guevara directed the excavations in the neighborhoods Las Latas, Las Esteras, Miramar and Pescadores. As a result they found more than 90 funerals.
From 1968 to 1969, Hilda Vidal conducted some archaeological works in the pampas in the neighborhood of Las Esteras, Miramar and Las Colinas. The results were never published.
From 1969 to 1970, Humberto Ghersi and Lorenzo Samaniego dug in the Park Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, Barrio de Pescadores.
In 1970 Alberto Millar dug at the site El Tanque from Las Colinas. Later based on the analysis from the recovered material, he wrote his doctoral thesis entitled: "Economic Prehistory at The Ancon Tank Site: A Test of Demographic Explanation of Agricultural Origins in The Ancon - Chillon region, Central Peruvian Coast".
In 1976, he made a campaign in the Pampas of San Jose under the direction of the National Institute of Culture, where he discovered 12 burials, the same that were excavated by Rogger Ravines.
Between January and February from 1994, the Archaeological Research Center of Ancon and the University of Lima carried out the archaeological project "Tombs of Ancon” in the Miramar area under the direction of Federico Kauffman Doig. A total of 20 funerary contexts were exhumed. They corresponded to 31 individuals. The results were published in Arqueológicas No. - 23 (1996).
As a result, more than 3,000 burials have been excavated in Ancon, some of them with a scientific approach. However, just a small part of the results have been published.
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